Reading Placement Test

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1. Last year, I _____ to Spain.


2. I need to go ____ from the airport after class.


3. My friend loves to ____ music.


4. At ____ twenty-one, she will move into her own apartment.


5. You should water your houseplants ____ they are dry and they really need it.


6. Mary’s friends ____ so she is sure they would love to go to the art museum.


7. The professor believes that the problem of healthcare is a major ____ for today’s society.


8. The famous chef prepared steak that was beautifully ____ and delicious.


9. We are sorry, but the airline has had some difficulty _____ your baggage.


10. There _______ someone at home. I can hear people’s voices and the lights are on.


11. Because of ______, elephants have a difficult time hiding.


12. Human beings _____ by the wonders of nature.


13. The department store needs to decide which shoes are selling well and which are _______


14. He ________ be a grandfather. He looks like a teenager.


15. I need someone who can help me _____ my new computer.


16. You’d better take your umbrella with you ____ it rains.


17. The mother told her child _____ so impolite.


18. My eyes were _____ bad that I couldn’t read the sign in front of me.


19. We are so sorry—we didn’t _____ to bother you.


20. I was looking forward _____ the new coffee shop, but it was closed.


21. He came to live here ______ a month ago.


22. Please wait until the plane is in the air before you _____ your seatbelts.


23. As soon as she realized she had dropped her car keys, she _____ her steps.


24. Would you mind _____ this essay a look before I turn it in?


25. No sooner _____ the window than the cat jumped out into the garden.


26. They wanted to know ____ when the old ice cream shop had started selling pizza.


27. There is no way we ______ it without your support.


28. I wish we ____ under happier circumstances.


29. You won’t be able to travel tomorrow ___ you feel a lot better.


30. The oranges cost only one dollar ______ pound.


31. When Sarah was a little girl, she ______ spend hours playing with her toys outside.


32. Did you have any problems ____ the restaurant?


33. She is certain she would have regretted it if she had ____ to take the job.


34. The only thing I don’t like about my apartment is the large volume of ___ that passes by my window, day and night.


35. The band ended the show ____ their most popular song.


36. Can we park the car in this spot?


37. I can’t understand this message.


38. What color will you paint your new house?


39. How is your grandmother feeling these days?


40. I’d like two tickets for Saturday night.


41. Neither the students nor the teacher __________ what time the school party will begin.


42. The rose, in addition to other flowers, such as irises and daisies, _______commonly included in perennial flower gardens.


43. It is of critical importance that cities of the future _________faster and more efficient means of public transportation.


44. Half of the cheese is burnt, and half of the pepperoni slices _____ missing from my pizza.


45. Had she only ____________ to the supermarket before the weekend, she would have had enough eggs to make an omelet on Saturday morning.


46. He remembered __________ his grandmother when he was younger the moment he saw the old family photo album.


47. If I _______________ you, I would definitely invest in that company.


48. Next July, I will celebrate my fifth work anniversary, as I _______________ for this company for five years by then.


49. When we graduate from college, I _______________ my best friend for over ten years.


50. Marc Chagall’s “America Windows” is a beloved example of twentieth-century stained glass artwork __________, by portraying a variety of symbolic elements with prominent use of the artist’s characteristic shade of blue, proves unforgettable for many who visit the museum.



Types of Cells

Too small to see with the naked eye, all of life on earth is composed of tiny, microscopic cells. Some cells join together with others to form complex organisms, including plants, animals, and even human beings. Other cells exist as individual units. It is important to differentiate between the two major classifications of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic.

Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms, made of only one prokaryotic cell. Thought to be the first life to develop on earth, prokaryotes are believed to have first appeared between approximately 2.5 and 2.7 billion years ago. These tiny organisms are a very simple life form, lacking the nucleus and other structures present in more complex cells. The name “pro-karyotic,” means “before nucleus.” In Greek, “pro” means “before,” and “karyon” means “nut, kernel,” or “nucleus.” Prokaryotic cells do contain DNA; instead of being enclosed in a membrane, the DNA of the cell simply floats within the cytoplasm—the fluid which fills each cell. Ribosomes, the particles which synthesize proteins, are also scattered throughout the cells of prokaryotes. Common prokaryotes include cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, as well as a number of bacteria, including E. coli and Streptococcus bacteria. Many extremophiles, organisms which exist in extreme environments, are also prokaryotes. Achaea, for example, may thrive in places where other forms of life cannot survive, such as in arctic ice, hot springs, mud flats, and even sulfur-rich thermal vents, deep under the sea on the ocean floor.

Eukaryotes, on the other hand, are more complex. They are believed to have developed around one billion years after the first prokaryotes. Eukaryotes may exist as single cells, or form part of a larger, more complex organism. Eukaryotic cells contain many different, specialized structures, called organelles. Most importantly, eukaryotic cells contain a central nucleus, an organelle which encloses the cell’s DNA inside of a membrane in the middle of the cell. Just as in prokaryotes, ribosomes as well as cytoplasm are also present in eukaryotic cells. Other organelles found in eukaryotic cells may aid with energy production, synthesis of proteins, locomotion, reproduction, or photosynthesis, depending on the type of organism the cell belongs to. Some eukaryotes exist separately, including the protists, many of which are unicellular. However, many other eukaryotic cells form parts of multicellular organisms. All fungi, plants, and animals are composed of eukaryotic cells.

51. The main purpose of this passage is to _______


52. The term “prokaryotic” comes from the fact that _______


53. Complex organelles are always present in _______


54. The organisms most likely to survive in extreme heat or cold include ________


55. Eukaryotes are thought to have first developed around ________ ago.


56. All of the following are true of eukaryotic cells EXCEPT that they ______


57. According to the passage, what is true about ribosomes?


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